MORE About Worm Medicines

One of the members of the Kadohadacho Chapter of the Arkansas Archeological Society came by the Survey this morning, with some follow-up information from last night’s talk. I showed the picture of Wilder’s “Mother’s Worm Syrup” bottle recovered from Locus 9 (see the last post). The advertisement for Wilder’s syrup, published in the New Orleans Commercial Bulletin in 1870, lists among its attractive qualities that it is free of the “poisonous effects of all worm candy.”

Our Chapter member had done some internet research on worm candy to find out a bit more about what it was. He pointed Jamie and I to a few web pages which gave us a lot more information on 19th and 20th century worm medicines, specifically candies.

As with syrups and tonics, patent candy pill ingredients were proprietary information, so we don’t know what was in the worm candies that Wilder’s ad refers to. The Smithsonian Institution, though, has a picture of a box of DeWitt’s Worm Candy, dating to around 1930. The National Museum of American History has another image of it, too. The DeWitt’s box bears the words “For eradicating round worms a reliable preparation/The active ingredient of which is santonin.”

Santonin, as the great and powerful Wikipedia tells us, is an anthelminthic, a vermifuge (worm expeller). It is compounded from the flowers of Artemisia maritima, or Sea Wormwood, native to Turkestan and the Southern Ural region (Merck 1989 cited in NCBI 2013). In small doses, santonin could be effective at killing off the worms, though it could turn your vision yellow or green, and urine purple or red (Encyclopedia Britannica 1911).

Wow. It actually gets scarier.

In larger doses, however, it could produce aphasia (the inability to form or comprehend language), muscle tremors, epileptic convulsions, blindness, and death (Encyclopedia Britannica 1911).

We can’t be sure that the active ingredient in the worm candies Wilder’s ad referenced was santonin, as they were patent medicines and, as they predate the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, didn’t have to publish their contents on the label. However, if it was santonin or another medicine with similar properties, certainly the above-mentioned side effects would be consistent with the “poisonous effects of all worm candies” that Wilder’s medicine claimed to be free of.

So, now you know a little bit more of our history with battling intestinal worms…

References

Encyclopedia Britannica
1911     Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Volume 24: Saint-Claire Deville to Shuttle. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Merck
1989    The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 11th edition. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck.

National Center for Biotechnology Information [NCBI]
2013    Santonin. Electronic resource (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=221071), accessed 13 February 2013.

September Excavations at Dooley’s Ferry

The first of this fall’s three long-weekend digs at Dooley’s Ferry is, quite literally, in the books. Volunteers from as far away as Monticello showed up and helped excavate three new test units (TU6-8) in the area we believe was the back yard of the structure that appears in both historical documents and the geophysical data collected earlier this year.

DFSepDigThere are a lot of artifacts to process, as, like during the Spring Break Dig, the artifact density for the units was quite high. There are the usual lot of nails of different pennyweights, ceramics of different sorts (though primarily whitewares), and significant amounts of glass (both flat and vessel). The structure was definitely not a log cabin (which tend to be thin on nails) and had glass windows in them (some early cabins had paper coverings on the window that would be soaked in oil to make them translucent).

A clay marble and a jack suggests the presence of children playing at the house. A bone die could either be a child’s toy or evidence of more adult diversions. As we process the artifacts, we will find more such small finds that tell us about the inhabitants of the site. See Mary Beaudry’s work on small finds research.

The primary goal of this fieldwork was to identify the age of the site. We know there was a building there in the 1860s and later, but we don’t know how old it might be. A piece of blue shell-edged whiteware and a reed stem pipe suggest that there may be an antebellum component, which would push the date of habitation earlier than the documents tell us.

Amazingly, we had three rain days. We were chased out of the field by a gullywasher on Thursday, and we didn’t even try to go out on Sunday and Monday. Given the drought conditions the area has been laboring under for the past couple of years, I’m certainly not going to complain.

We’re set up well to proceed with our next round of excavations in October. Look for more posts before then, here on the Trowel ‘N’ Transit.